---------- Recipe via Meal-Master (tm) v8.02
  
       Title: Recommended Canners (part 1 of 3)
  Categories: Canning, Information
       Yield: 1 guide
  
  
   Equipment for heat-processing home-canned food is of two main
   types--boiling-water canners and pressure canners. Most are designed to
   hold seven Quart jars or eight to nine pints. Small pressure canners
   hold four quart jars; some large pressure canners hold 18 pint jars in
   two layers, but hold only seven quart jars. Pressure saucepans with
   smaller volume capacities are not recommended for use in canning. Small
   capacity pressure canners are treated in a similar manner as standard
   larger canners, and should be vented using the typical venting
   procedures.
   
   Low-acid foods must be processed in a pressure canner to be free of
   botulism risks. Although pressure canners may also be used for
   processing acid foods, boiling-water canners are recommended for this
   purpose because they are faster. A pressure canner would require from 55
   to 100 minutes to process a load of jars; while the total time for
   processing most acid foods in boiling water varies from 25 to 60
   minutes. A boiling-water canner loaded with filled jars requires about
   20 to 30 minutes of heating before its water begins to boil. A loaded
   pressure canner requires about 12 to 15 minutes of heating before it
   begins to vent; another 10 minutes to vent the canner; another 5 minutes
   to pressurize the canner; another 8 to 10 minutes to process the acid
   food; and, finally, another 20 to 60 minutes to cool the canner before
   removing jars.
   
   Boiling-Water Canners
   
   These canners are made of aluminum or porcelain-covered steel. They have
   removable perforated racks and fitted lids. The canner must be deep
   enough so that at least 1 inch of briskly boiling water will be over the
   tops of jars during processing. Some boiling-water canners do not have
   flat bottoms. A flat bottom must be used on an electric range. Either a
   flat or ridged bottom can be used on a gas burner. To ensure uniform
   processing of all jars with an electric range, the canner should be no
   more than 4 inches wider in diameter than the element on which it is
   heated.
   
   Using Boiling-Water Canners
   
   Follow these steps for successful boiling-water canning:
   
   * Fill the canner halfway with water.
   
   * Preheat water to 140 degrees F for raw-packed foods and to 180
   degrees F for hot-packed foods.
   
   * Load filled jars, fitted with lids, into the canner rack and use the
   handles to lower the rack into the water; or fill the canner, one jar
   at a time, with a jar lifter.
   
   * Add more boiling water if needed, so the water level is at least 1
   inch above jar tops.
   
   * Turn heat to its highest position until water boils vigorously.
   
   * Set a timer for the minutes required for processing the food.
   
   * Cover with the canner lid and lower the heat setting to maintain a
   gentle boil throughout the process schedule.
   
   * Add more boiling water, if needed, to keep the water level above the
   jars.
   
   * When jars have been boiled for the recommended time, turn off the
   heat and remove the canner lid.
   
   * Using a jar lifter remove the jars and place them on a towel, leaving
   at least 1-inch spaces between the jars during cooling.
   
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   * USDA Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 539 (rev. 1994)
   * Meal-Master format courtesy of Karen Mintzias
  
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