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       Title: ABOUT JAMS  JELLIES & PRESERVES
  Categories: Jam, Jelly, Fruits
       Yield: 1 Text file
  
  
   The less sugar you use the greater the flavor impact
   of the fruit. If honey is used there will be a flavor
   change and the jellies/jams must be cooked longer. If
   you use artificial sweeteners use only the Cyclamate
   type to avoid bitterness and follow the manufacturer’s
   instructions. Cooked down jellies in which the juice
   is extracted by the open kettle method contain 60%
   fruit versus commercial products [pressure cooked to
   extract more juice but pectin destroying] with only 45%
   
   Jelly: has great clarity from dripping the cooked
   fruit through a cloth before adding sugar and
   finishing.
   
   Jams, Butter and Pastes: are whole fruit purees of
   increasing density.
   
   Marmalades, Preserves and Conserves: are bits of fruit
   in a heavy syrup.
   
   High Pectin Fruits: Apples, Crabapples, Quinces, Red
   Currants, Gooseberries, Plums and Cranberries. These
   need no additional pectin. If you get syrupy jelly you
   used too much sugar or did not cook the juice long
   enough after adding the sugar.
   
   Low Pectin Fruits: Strawberries, Blueberries, Peaches,
   Apricots, Cherries, Pears, Blackberries, Raspberries,
   Grapes, Pineapple and Rhubarb. These require combining
   with high pectin fruits or adding a commercial pectin.
   
   To Test Pectin Content: Put 1 tbl cooled fruit juice
   in a glass. Add an equal amount of grain alcohol and
   shake gently. The alcohol will bring the pectin
   together in a gel. If a large amount of pectin is
   present it will appear in a single mass or clot when
   poured from the glass. Use equal amounts of juice and
   sugar. If the pectin collects in several small
   particles use have as much sugar as juice.
   
   To sterilize jelly glasses: fill jars 3/4 full of
   water and place them in a shallow pan partly filled
   with water. Simmer 15 min and then keep hot until
   filled. If the lids are placed on the steaming jars
   they will be sterilized simultaneously.
   
   Tips: -Use enamel or stainless steel pots not aluminum
   or copper.
         -On average, use 3/4 c sugar to 1 c fruit or
   juice depending on
          pectin content[see above].
         -Very acid fruits can tolerate a whole c of
   sugar.
         -Sterilize jars and seal tightly.
         -For fruit that tends to discolor add lemon
   juice or Ascorbic acid.
         -Keep in a cool dark place but do not
   refrigerate.
   
   Making Jam: is easiest and most economical as it needs
   only one cooking step and uses the pulp. Measure the
   fruit. In putting it in the pan, crush the lower
   layers to provide moisture until more is drawn out by
   cooking or add a little water. Simmer the fruit until
   it is soft. Add sugar and stir until dissolved. Bring
   to a boil, stirring to avoid sticking. Reduce heat and
   cook until thickened- up to 1/2 hr.
   
   Making Preserves and Conserves: Place fruit in a pot
   with an equal amount of sugar in layers ending with
   sugar on top and allow to rest overnight. Bring slowly
   to a boil and simmer until fruit is translucent. Drain
   fruit and put in sterile jars. Simmer syrup longer if
   necessary to thicken it and pour over fruit. Seal and
   store.
   
   Making juice for jelly: Wash and drain fruit. Prick or
   crush the fruit. Add water if fruit is not juicy
   enough eg. apples. Add enough to the kettle that you
   can see it through the fruit but the fruit is not
   floating. Cook uncovered until the fruit is soft and
   loosing its color. Have ready a jelly bag [several
   layers of cheese cloth] . Wet it, wring it out and
   line a strainer with it. Let the juice drip through
   without squeezing it as this muddies and flavors the
   jelly. This juice can be kept up to 6 months before
   proceeding by freezing or canning it.
   
   Making jelly: Measure the strained juice and put it in
   an enamel or stainless steel pan. Simmer 5 min. Skim
   off froth. Measure and warm sugar in a pan in the oven
   and add it. Stir until dissolved. Cook at a gentle
   simmer until the point of jelling. To test, place a
   small amount of jelly on a spoon, cool it slightly and
   let it drop back into the pot from the side of the
   spoon. As the syrup thickens, 2 large drops will form
   along the edge of the spoon. when these two drops run
   together and fall as a single drop the “sheeting”
   stage has been reached- 220 to 222 deg F and the jelly
   will be firm when cooled. It can take anywhere from 10
   to 30 min for jelly to reach this stage depending on
   the fruit and the amount of sugar. Take the jars from
   the sterilizing bath and invert on a cake cooler. They
   should be hot but dry when filled. Fill to 1/4 from
   the top. Cover with melted paraffin 1/8 deep.
  
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